Individual legislator voting records for this vote are not currently available. Includes all politicians who were in office at any point during the 2011-2012 Legislature.

AB 378 - An Act to Amend Sections 139.3, 139.31, and 5307.1 of the Labor Code, Relating to Workers’ Compensation.

Workers’ compensation: pharmacy products. 2011-2012 Legislature. View bill details
Author(s):
Summary:
Existing law establishes a workers’ compensation system, administered by the Administrative Director of the Division of Workers’ Compensation, to compensate an employee for injuries sustained in the course of employment.

Existing law provides that it is unlawful for a physician to refer a person for specified medical goods or services, whether for treatment or medical-legal… More
Existing law establishes a workers’ compensation system, administered by the Administrative Director of the Division of Workers’ Compensation, to compensate an employee for injuries sustained in the course of employment.

Existing law provides that it is unlawful for a physician to refer a person for specified medical goods or services, whether for treatment or medical-legal purposes, if the physician or his or her immediate family has a financial interest with the person or in the entity that receives the referral. A violation of this provision is a misdemeanor.

This bill would add pharmacy goods, as defined, to the list of medical goods or services for which it is unlawful for a physician to refer a person under this provision, except in prescribed circumstances. By creating a new crime, this bill would impose a state-mandated local program.

Existing law requires the administrative director, after public hearings, to adopt and revise periodically an official medical fee schedule that establishes reasonable maximum fees paid for medical services, other than physician services, and for other prescribed goods and services, in accordance with specified requirements. Under existing law, prior to the adoption by the administrative director of a medical fee schedule for any treatment, facility use, product, or service not covered by a Medicare payment system, the maximum reasonable fee paid cannot exceed the fee specified in the official medical fee schedule in effect on December 31, 2003. Existing law also provides that for pharmacy services and drugs not otherwise covered by a Medicare fee schedule payment for facility services, the maximum reasonable fees are 100% of fees prescribed in the relevant Medi-Cal payment system.

This bill would prohibit the maximum reasonable fees paid for pharmacy services and drugs from including specified reductions in the relevant Medi-Cal payment system.

This bill would require any compounded drug product, as defined, to be billed by the compounding pharmacy or dispensing physician at the ingredient level, as prescribed, and in accordance with regulations adopted by the California State Board of Pharmacy. This bill would set specified maximum reimbursement for a dangerous drug, dangerous device, or other pharmacy goods, dispensed by a physician, and would define related terms.

This bill would prohibit a provision concerning physician-dispensed pharmacy goods from being superseded by any provision of the official medical fee schedule adopted by the administrative director unless the official medical fee schedule provision is expressly applicable. This bill would also require the provision adopted by the administrative director to govern if a provision concerning physician-dispensed pharmacy goods is inconsistent with the prescribed official medical fee schedule.

This bill would also delete obsolete provisions relating to the adoption of a medical fee schedule for patient facility fees for burn cases.

This bill would incorporate additional changes in Section 5307.1 of the Labor Code proposed by Senate Bill 923, that would become operative only if Senate Bill 923 and this bill are both chaptered and become effective on or before January 1, 2012, and this bill is chaptered last.

The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.

This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this act for a specified reason. Hide
 
Status:
The bill has become law (chaptered). 
Senate Vote: On Passage

PASSED on September 9, 2011.

voted YES: 38 voted NO: 0
2 voted present/not voting

An Act to Amend Sections 139.3, 139.31, and 5307.1 of the Labor Code, Relating to Workers’ Compensation.

AB 378 — 2011-2012 Legislature

Summary
Existing law establishes a workers’ compensation system, administered by the Administrative Director of the Division of Workers’ Compensation, to compensate an employee for injuries sustained in the course of employment.

Existing law provides that it is unlawful for a physician to refer a person for specified medical goods or services, whether for treatment or medical-legal purposes, if the physician or his or her immediate family has a financial interest with the person or in the entity that receives the referral. A violation of this provision is a misdemeanor.

This bill would add pharmacy goods, as defined, to the list of medical goods or services for which it is unlawful for a physician to refer a person under this provision, except in prescribed circumstances. By creating a new crime, this bill would impose a state-mandated local program.

Existing law requires the administrative director, after public hearings, to adopt and revise periodically an official medical fee schedule that establishes reasonable maximum fees paid for medical services, other than physician services, and for other prescribed goods and services, in accordance with… More
Existing law establishes a workers’ compensation system, administered by the Administrative Director of the Division of Workers’ Compensation, to compensate an employee for injuries sustained in the course of employment.

Existing law provides that it is unlawful for a physician to refer a person for specified medical goods or services, whether for treatment or medical-legal purposes, if the physician or his or her immediate family has a financial interest with the person or in the entity that receives the referral. A violation of this provision is a misdemeanor.

This bill would add pharmacy goods, as defined, to the list of medical goods or services for which it is unlawful for a physician to refer a person under this provision, except in prescribed circumstances. By creating a new crime, this bill would impose a state-mandated local program.

Existing law requires the administrative director, after public hearings, to adopt and revise periodically an official medical fee schedule that establishes reasonable maximum fees paid for medical services, other than physician services, and for other prescribed goods and services, in accordance with specified requirements. Under existing law, prior to the adoption by the administrative director of a medical fee schedule for any treatment, facility use, product, or service not covered by a Medicare payment system, the maximum reasonable fee paid cannot exceed the fee specified in the official medical fee schedule in effect on December 31, 2003. Existing law also provides that for pharmacy services and drugs not otherwise covered by a Medicare fee schedule payment for facility services, the maximum reasonable fees are 100% of fees prescribed in the relevant Medi-Cal payment system.

This bill would prohibit the maximum reasonable fees paid for pharmacy services and drugs from including specified reductions in the relevant Medi-Cal payment system.

This bill would require any compounded drug product, as defined, to be billed by the compounding pharmacy or dispensing physician at the ingredient level, as prescribed, and in accordance with regulations adopted by the California State Board of Pharmacy. This bill would set specified maximum reimbursement for a dangerous drug, dangerous device, or other pharmacy goods, dispensed by a physician, and would define related terms.

This bill would prohibit a provision concerning physician-dispensed pharmacy goods from being superseded by any provision of the official medical fee schedule adopted by the administrative director unless the official medical fee schedule provision is expressly applicable. This bill would also require the provision adopted by the administrative director to govern if a provision concerning physician-dispensed pharmacy goods is inconsistent with the prescribed official medical fee schedule.

This bill would also delete obsolete provisions relating to the adoption of a medical fee schedule for patient facility fees for burn cases.

This bill would incorporate additional changes in Section 5307.1 of the Labor Code proposed by Senate Bill 923, that would become operative only if Senate Bill 923 and this bill are both chaptered and become effective on or before January 1, 2012, and this bill is chaptered last.

The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.

This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this act for a specified reason. Hide
Learn More
At LegInfo.ca.gov
Title
An Act to Amend Sections 139.3, 139.31, and 5307.1 of the Labor Code, Relating to Workers’ Compensation.
Author(s)
Jose Solorio
Co-Authors
    Subjects
    • Workers’ compensation: pharmacy products
    Major Actions
    Introduced2/14/2011
    Referred to Committee
    Passed Assembly Committee on Insurance4/13/2011
    Passed Assembly Committee on Business, Professions and Consumer Protection5/03/2011
    Passed Assembly Committee on Appropriations5/27/2011
    Passed Assembly5/31/2011
    Passed Senate Committee on Labor and Industrial Relations7/06/2011
    Failed passage in Senate9/07/2011
    Passed Senate9/07/2011
    Passed Senate9/09/2011
    Passed Assembly9/09/2011
    Presented to the governor (enrolled)9/23/2011
    Became law (chaptered).10/07/2011
    Bill History
    Chamber/CommitteeMotionDateResult
    select this voteAssembly Committee on InsuranceDo pass and be re-referred to the Committee on Business, Professions and Consumer Protection.4/13/2011This motion PASSED the Assembly Committee on Insurance
    9 voted YES 0 voted NO 3 voted present/not voting
    select this voteAssembly Committee on Business, Professions and Consumer ProtectionDo pass as amended and be re-referred to the Committee on Appropriations.5/03/2011This motion PASSED the Assembly Committee on Business, Professions and Consumer Protection
    8 voted YES 1 voted NO 0 voted present/not voting
    select this voteAssembly Committee on AppropriationsDo pass.5/27/2011This motion PASSED the Assembly Committee on Appropriations
    17 voted YES 0 voted NO 0 voted present/not voting
    select this voteAssemblyAB 378 SOLORIO Assembly Third Reading5/31/2011This bill PASSED the Assembly
    72 voted YES 2 voted NO 6 voted present/not voting
    select this voteSenate Committee on Labor and Industrial RelationsDo pass, but re-refer to the Committee on Appropriations.7/06/2011This motion PASSED the Senate Committee on Labor and Industrial Relations
    5 voted YES 1 voted NO 1 voted present/not voting
    select this voteSenateAssembly 3rd Reading AB378 Solorio By DeSaulnier9/07/2011This bill DID NOT PASS the Senate
    15 voted YES 6 voted NO 19 voted present/not voting
    select this voteSenateAssembly 3rd Reading AB378 Solorio By DeSaulnier Reconsider9/07/2011This bill PASSED the Senate
    36 voted YES 0 voted NO 4 voted present/not voting
    currently selectedSenateAssembly 2nd Reading AB378 Solorio By DeSaulnier9/09/2011This bill PASSED the Senate
    38 voted YES 0 voted NO 2 voted present/not voting
    select this voteAssemblyAB 378 SOLORIO Concurrence in Senate Amendments9/09/2011This bill PASSED the Assembly
    77 voted YES 2 voted NO 1 voted present/not voting
    ActionDateDescription
    Introduced2/14/2011
    2/14/2011Read first time. To print.
    2/15/2011From printer. May be heard in committee March 17.
    3/03/2011Referred to Coms. on INS. and B., P. & C.P.
    4/04/2011From committee chair, with author's amendments: Amend, and re-refer to Com. on INS. Read second time and amended.
    4/05/2011Re-referred to Com. on INS.
    4/13/2011From committee: Do pass and re-refer to Com. on B., P. & C.P. (Ayes 9. Noes 0.) (April 13). Re-referred to Com. on B., P. & C.P.
    select this voteVote4/13/2011Do pass and be re-referred to the Committee on Business, Professions and Consumer Protection.
    4/26/2011In committee: Set, first hearing. Hearing canceled at the request of author.
    select this voteVote5/03/2011Do pass as amended and be re-referred to the Committee on Appropriations.
    5/05/2011From committee: Do pass as amended and re-refer to Com. on APPR. (Ayes 8. Noes 1.) (May 3).
    5/09/2011Read second time and amended.
    5/10/2011Re-referred to Com. on APPR.
    select this voteVote5/27/2011Do pass.
    5/27/2011From committee: Do pass. (Ayes 17. Noes 0.) (May 27). Read second time. Ordered to third reading.
    5/31/2011In Senate. Read first time. To Com. on RLS. for assignment.
    5/31/2011Read third time. Passed. Ordered to the Senate. (Ayes 72. Noes 2. Page 1650.)
    select this voteAssembly Vote on Passage5/31/2011AB 378 SOLORIO Assembly Third Reading
    6/08/2011Referred to Com. on L. & I.R.
    6/27/2011In committee: Set, first hearing. Hearing canceled at the request of author.
    select this voteVote7/06/2011Do pass, but re-refer to the Committee on Appropriations.
    7/06/2011From committee: Do pass and re-refer to Com. on APPR. (Ayes 5. Noes 1.) (July 6). Re-referred to Com. on APPR.
    8/15/2011From committee chair, with author's amendments: Amend, and re-refer to committee. Read second time, amended, and re-referred to Com. on APPR. From committee: Be placed on second reading file pursuant to Senate Rule 28.8.
    8/16/2011Read second time. Ordered to third reading.
    9/01/2011Read third time and amended. Ordered to second reading.
    9/02/2011Read second time. Ordered to third reading.
    9/07/2011Read third time. Refused passage. (Ayes 15. Noes 6. Page 2365.). Motion to reconsider made by Senator DeSaulnier. Reconsideration granted. (Ayes 36. Noes 0. Page 2366.)
    select this voteSenate Vote on Passage9/07/2011Assembly 3rd Reading AB378 Solorio By DeSaulnier
    select this voteSenate Vote on Passage9/07/2011Assembly 3rd Reading AB378 Solorio By DeSaulnier Reconsider
    9/08/2011Joint Rule 61(a)(13) suspended. (Page 2395.) Read third time and amended. Ordered to second reading. Pursuant to Joint Rule 33.1,
    9/09/2011Read second time. Ordered to third reading. Senate Rule 29.3 suspended. (Page 2446.) Read third time. Passed. Ordered to the Assembly. (Ayes 38. Noes 0. Page 2446.).
    9/09/2011In Assembly. Concurrence in Senate amendments pending. Senate amendments concurred in. To Engrossing and Enrolling. (Ayes 77. Noes 2. Page 3203.).
    currently selectedSenate Vote on Passage9/09/2011Assembly 2nd Reading AB378 Solorio By DeSaulnier
    select this voteAssembly Vote on Passage9/09/2011AB 378 SOLORIO Concurrence in Senate Amendments
    9/23/2011Enrolled and presented to the Governor at 3:30 p.m.
    10/07/2011Approved by the Governor.
    10/07/2011Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 545, Statutes of 2011.

    Total contributions given to Senators from interest groups that…

    22 Organizations Supported and 5 Opposed; See Which Ones

    Organizations that took a position on
    An Act to Amend Sections 139.3, 139.31, and 5307.1 of the Labor Code, Relating to Workers’ Compensation.: Assembly 2nd Reading AB378 Solorio By DeSaulnier

    22 organizations supported this bill

    Acclamation Insurance Management Services
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Allied Managed Care
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    ALPHA Fund
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    American Insurance Association
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California Association of Joint Powers Authorities
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California Chamber of Commerce
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California Coalition on Workers' Compensation
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California Labor Federation
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California Manufacturers & Technology Association
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California Professional Association of Specialty Contractors
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California School Employees Association
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California State Association of Counties
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Comppharma
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    CSAC Excess Insurance Authority
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    International Association of Fire Fighters
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    League of California Cities
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    National Restaurant Association
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Oxnard Chamber of Commerce
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Pacific Insurance Compensation Company
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Property Casualty Insurers Association of America
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Small Business California
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Western Propane Gas Association
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.

    5 organizations opposed this bill

    California Pharmacists Association
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    California Society of Industrial Medicine and Surgery
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Pharmacy Access Coalition
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Pharmco Inc.
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.
    Physician Therapeutics
    Senate Labor & Industrial Relations Committee (2011, September 8). Senate Floor Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2011, from Leginfo: Bill Analysis.

    Need proof?

    View citations of support and opposition

    Includes reported contributions to campaigns of Senators in office on day of vote, from interest groups invested in the vote according to MapLight, January 1, 2009 – December 31, 2012.
    Contributions data source: FollowTheMoney.org

    Contributions by Legislator

    Namesort iconPartyDistrict$ From Interest Groups
    That Supported
    $ From Interest Groups
    That Opposed
    Vote
    Elaine AlquistDCA-13$20,600$2,500
    Joel AndersonRCA-36$145,350$13,700
    Tom BerryhillRCA-14$143,150$1,200
    Sam BlakesleeRCA-15$0$0
    Ron CalderonDCA-30$133,350$9,100
    Anthony CannellaRCA-12$117,950$0
    Ellen CorbettDCA-10$32,104$4,700
    Lou CorreaDCA-34$143,582$10,750
    Kevin De LeonDCA-22$216,165$27,000
    Mark DeSaulnierDCA-7$96,174$11,500
    Bob DuttonRCA-31$86,100$0
    Bill EmmersonRCA-37$97,375$14,500
    Noreen EvansDCA-2$82,749$2,000
    Jean FullerRCA-18$78,425$1,500
    Ted GainesRCA-1$260,000$9,050
    Loni HancockDCA-9$40,372$0
    Tom HarmanRCA-35$108,900$8,300
    Ed HernandezDCA-24$237,163$44,900
    Bob HuffRCA-29$219,000$8,000
    Christine KehoeDCA-39$38,800$3,500
    Doug La MalfaRCA-4$31,350$0
    Mark LenoDCA-3$53,999$5,300
    Ted LieuDCA-28$259,092$37,541
    Carol LiuDCA-21$47,645$3,500
    Alan LowenthalDCA-27$0$0
    Gloria Negrete McLeodDCA-32$108,385$20,700
    Alex PadillaDCA-20$120,800$16,900
    Fran PavleyDCA-23$82,469$5,400
    Curren PriceDCA-26$109,750$9,400
    Michael RubioDCA-16$143,811$29,518
    Sharon RunnerRCA-17$20,355$4,900
    Joe SimitianDCA-11$19,400$5,000
    Darrell SteinbergDCA-6$131,600$8,100
    Tony StricklandRCA-19$232,357$20,800
    Juan VargasDCA-40$213,632$6,500
    Mimi WaltersRCA-33$166,625$14,500
    Lois WolkDCA-5$78,250$7,400
    Rod WrightDCA-25$169,847$7,800
    Mark WylandRCA-38$76,300$11,300
    Leland YeeDCA-8$72,900$15,200

    Add Data Filters:

    Legislator Filters
    Legislator Filters
    Show All
    NamePartyDistrict$ From Interest Groups
    That Supported
    $ From Interest Groups
    That Opposed
    Vote
    Elaine AlquistDCA-13$20,600$2,500
    Joel AndersonRCA-36$145,350$13,700
    Tom BerryhillRCA-14$143,150$1,200
    Sam BlakesleeRCA-15$0$0
    Ron CalderonDCA-30$133,350$9,100
    Anthony CannellaRCA-12$117,950$0
    Ellen CorbettDCA-10$32,104$4,700
    Lou CorreaDCA-34$143,582$10,750
    Kevin De LeonDCA-22$216,165$27,000
    Mark DeSaulnierDCA-7$96,174$11,500
    Bob DuttonRCA-31$86,100$0
    Bill EmmersonRCA-37$97,375$14,500
    Noreen EvansDCA-2$82,749$2,000
    Jean FullerRCA-18$78,425$1,500
    Ted GainesRCA-1$260,000$9,050
    Loni HancockDCA-9$40,372$0
    Tom HarmanRCA-35$108,900$8,300
    Ed HernandezDCA-24$237,163$44,900
    Bob HuffRCA-29$219,000$8,000
    Christine KehoeDCA-39$38,800$3,500
    Doug La MalfaRCA-4$31,350$0
    Mark LenoDCA-3$53,999$5,300
    Ted LieuDCA-28$259,092$37,541
    Carol LiuDCA-21$47,645$3,500
    Alan LowenthalDCA-27$0$0
    Gloria Negrete McLeodDCA-32$108,385$20,700
    Alex PadillaDCA-20$120,800$16,900
    Fran PavleyDCA-23$82,469$5,400
    Curren PriceDCA-26$109,750$9,400
    Michael RubioDCA-16$143,811$29,518
    Sharon RunnerRCA-17$20,355$4,900
    Joe SimitianDCA-11$19,400$5,000
    Darrell SteinbergDCA-6$131,600$8,100
    Tony StricklandRCA-19$232,357$20,800
    Juan VargasDCA-40$213,632$6,500
    Mimi WaltersRCA-33$166,625$14,500
    Lois WolkDCA-5$78,250$7,400
    Rod WrightDCA-25$169,847$7,800
    Mark WylandRCA-38$76,300$11,300
    Leland YeeDCA-8$72,900$15,200

    Interest Groups that supported this bill

    $ Donated
    Police & fire fighters unions and associations$1,108,000
    Property & casualty insurance$1,086,709
    Accident & health insurance$691,265
    Insurance agencies, brokers & agents$373,332
    Restaurants & drinking establishments$314,133
    Finance, insurance & real estate$270,700
    HMOs$201,905
    Health care services$127,414
    Chambers of commerce$88,900
    Labor unions$72,150
    Manufacturing$48,366
    Special trade contractors$27,000
    Municipal & county government organizations$21,900
    Public official (elected or appointed)$4,100
    Small business organizations$0
    LPG/Liquid propane dealers & producers$0
    Civil service & government unions$0
    General business associations$0

    Interest Groups that opposed this bill

    $ Donated
    Other physician specialists$302,441
    Health care products$49,918
    Pharmacists$49,600
    Health professionals$0
    Loading…
    Date Range of Contributions
    Enter a custom date range